OTC Pink Sheets 101

Published: 08th April 2015
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OTCMarkets Group operates the world's largest electronic inter-dealer quotation system for broker-dealers to trade unlisted securities. The OTCMarkets Group categorizes issuers into three tiers to fit the wide spectrum of OTC issuers.

The OTC Pink Tier

The Pink Sheets is one of the tiers used to categorize issuers who do not file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). The OTCMarkets describes the OTC Pink Sheets as an "electronic quotation and trading system" for over-the-counter securities operated through a "inter-dealer quotation service." Secondary trading of the securities of OTC Pink Sheet issuers is facilitated only between broker-dealers. There are approximately 2,665 companies quoted with the OTC Pink Sheets Current Information Tier.

Requirements of the OTCMarket's Pink Sheets Current Tier

Current SEC reporting companies and non-U.S. companies that are listed on a qualified foreign stock exchange automatically qualify for the Pink Sheets Current Information tier.

Issuers not reporting with the SEC must subscribe to the OTCMarkets Disclosure and News Service to be quoted with the Pink Sheets Current tier as well as publicly file an initial Information and Disclosure Statement with a signed Attorney Letter Agreement by the issuer's SEC attorney.

While Pink Sheets listing requirements are minimal, the OTCMarkets established specific disclosure requirements for companies quoted with a "Pink Sheets Current" disclosure tier.

Disclosure Standards of the OTCMarket's Pink Sheets Current

Issuers must file annual and quarterly disclosures ("Information and Disclosure Statements") as well as updates in order to maintain the Pink Sheets Current tier. Annual reports must be filed no later than 90 days after the end of each fiscal year and quarterly reports must be filed no later than 45 days after the end of each fiscal quarter.

Additionally, the issuer must file current information updates within 4 business days if:

♦ any of the information contained in a previously filed Information and Disclosure Statement becomes materially inaccurate or incomplete; and

♦ upon the occurrence of certain material events (described below).

OTC Pink Sheet Annual Report Requirements

Issuers are required to file annual reports 90 days after the end of each fiscal year which provide the following disclosures:

♦ General information about the issuer including the name of the issuer and its predecessor, address of the issuer's principal executive offices, telephone, facsimile and website, jurisdiction and date of incorporation;

♦ Capital structure, including exact title and class of securities issued and outstanding, the number of shares in the public float, par value and a description of each class of outstanding securities, the number of shares or total amount of the securities issued and outstanding for each class of securities the issuer is authorized to issue;

♦ Name and contact information of the transfer agent;

♦ Nature of the issuer's business, the nature of products or services offered, and the nature and extent of the issuer's facilities;

♦ Material Contracts and Contracts that have a value of more than $120,000

♦ The name of the chief executive officer, members of the board of directors, as well as control persons;

♦ Financial information for the issuer's most recent fiscal period and similar financial information for such part of the two preceding fiscal years as the issuer or its predecessor has been in existence;

♦ Information regarding persons or entities holding or with a right to hold 5% or more of any class of the issuer's securities;

♦ Service providers that advise the issuer on matters relating to the operations, business development and OTCMarkets disclosure and reporting requirements;

♦ Management's discussion and analysis or plan of operation;

♦ Securities offerings including convertible securities and shares issued for services in the past two years, including the facts surrounding the offering, identity of the recipient, consideration paid and exemption from registration relied upon.

The issuer must also describe or attach material contracts, articles of incorporation and bylaws, a table showing any purchases of equity securities by the issuer or affiliated purchasers, and a certification stating that the issuer has disclosed the items set forth above.

OTC Pink Sheet Quarterly Reporting

Pink Sheets Quarterly Reports are required to be filed 45 days after the end of each quarter and must include:

♦ Exact name of the issuer and the address of its principal executive offices

♦ Shares outstanding at the end of the fiscal quarter

♦ Interim financial statements

♦ Management's discussion and analysis or plan of operation

♦ Legal proceedings (to the extent not previously disclosed)

♦ Defaults upon senior securities (to the extent not previously disclosed)

♦ Information that would otherwise need to be disclosed in a Current Update

The issuer also needs to describe or attach any material contracts, articles of incorporation or bylaws, or amendments thereof, that have not been previously disclosed.

OTCMarkets OTC Pink Sheet Current

Issuers on the OTCMarkets Pink Sheet Tier must file Current Reports within 4 days of any material event affecting the issuer:

♦ Sales of equity securities;

♦ Material modification to rights of security holders;

♦ Entry into or termination of a "Material Definitive Agreement" defined as an agreement made outside the ordinary course of business that provides for obligations that are material to and enforceable against the issuer, or rights that are material to the issuer and enforceable by the issuer against one or more other parties to the agreement, in each case whether or not subject to conditions;

♦ Completion of acquisition or disposition of assets including, but not limited to mergers and changes in control of the issuer;

♦ Creation of a direct financial obligation or an obligation under an off-balance sheet arrangement of an issuer and any triggering events that accelerate or increase a direct financial obligation or an obligation under an off-balance sheet arrangement;

♦ Costs associated with exit or disposal activities; material impairments;

♦ Changes in issuer's certifying accountant; non-reliance on previously issued financial statements or a related audit report or completed interim review;

♦ Departure of directors or principal officers; election of directors; appointment of principal officers;

♦ Amendments to articles of incorporation or bylaws; change in fiscal year; amendments to the issuer's code of ethics, or waiver of a provision of the code of ethics.

Disclosure Failures of OTC Markets Pink Sheet Issuers

Issuers frequently overlook the OTCMarkets requirement that issuers file informational updates within 4 business days of any event that causes any of the information contained in previously filed disclosures to become materially inaccurate or incomplete. For example, the foregoing obligates issuers to provide updated disclosures when the information concerning its public float or issued and outstanding securities is materially changed if such change occurred after the period of the report. Consider the example of an issuer that files a quarterly report on April 1 for the period ending March 31, that states its float is 1,000,000 shares. On April 15, the issuer enters into a convertible loan agreement, which upon conversion requires it to issue 200,000 shares. Based on this material issuance increase and the transaction itself, the issuer must amend its March 31 disclosures within four days of filing under OTCMarkets rules. Under Rule 10b-5 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (discussed below), the issuer has an obligation to immediately amend its March 31 report because the report omits a material fact that the issuer has an obligation to issue 200,000 shares, which upon issuance will represent more than 20% of reported public float. Failure to file this amended and updated disclosure would render the issuer's March 31 statement to be misleading since the issuer did not disclose that the 1,000,000 shares in the float will be diluted by 20%. Even though the April 15 agreement was entered into after the March 31 report, the issuer has an obligation to update the report under both the OTCMarkets disclosure requirements and 10b-5.

Unfortunately Pink Sheet issuers, as well as their attorneys repeatedly fail to recognize that every public company must make adequate public information available to investors pursuant to Rule 10b-5 which prohibits making untrue statements of material fact as well as omitting material facts necessary to make the statements not misleading. For purposes of determining materiality, the standard employed is what a reasonable investor would consider important in their investment decision under the totality of the circumstances. For instance, as stated above, Pink Sheet issuers have the unfortunate tendency to fail to make timely disclosure of material agreements that require the issuance of securities, often convertible notes or purported convertible debt. These types of agreements and related non-disclosures have been the subject of recent SEC scrutiny and enforcement cases.

The bottom line in the OTCMarkets disclosure platform is that issuers as well as their attorneys may fail to recognize and put into practice the transparency required to comply with 10b-5 and the OTCMarkets disclosure requirements, the repercussions of which are devastating to investors as well as the issuer who could become the subject of SEC enforcement actions, SEC trading suspensions and DTC Chills of the Issuer's stock.


Hamilton & Associates l Securities Lawyers
Brenda Hamilton, Securities Attorney
101 Plaza Real South, Suite 201 South
Boca Raton, Florida 33432


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